Black Garlic-Enzymatic Fermentation Technology
After garlic plating, it needs to be carried out in a special enzymatic fermentation chamber, which requires that temperature, humidity and indoor oxygen content can be automatically adjusted.
Temperature is the most important factor affecting the fermentation of garlic in the process of enzymatic fermentation. Especially in the first 10 days of entering the fermentation chamber, it is the enzymatic activation period of black garlic.
Enzyme activation period is divided into three stages. The first stage is enzymatic fermentation in the range of 85 to 95 degrees Celsius, 30 hours to 50 hours, then enters the second stage. The second stage is temperature in the range of 65 to 75 degrees Celsius, time is 60 to 110 hours, the last stage is the third stage. The third stage is temperature in the range of 55 to 65 degrees Celsius. Fermentation time is 60 to 110 hours.
Because the water content, the size of garlic cloves and the pH value of garlic are different in each batch during the fermentation period of enzymes, how many hours of fermentation are needed to control the temperature in each stage of production, and how many hours of fermentation are needed to be determined by experienced technicians.
At the stage of enzyme activation, humidity control is also very critical. Generally, the relative humidity of indoor air can be kept at about 85%. If the indoor humidity is too low, steam engine should be used to inject steam into the fermentation chamber to increase the humidity of the fermentation chamber.
During the activation period of enzymes, an anaerobic environment needs to be created for them. In the enzymatic fermentation chamber, there are air replacement devices, which use carbon dioxide or nitrogen to replace oxygen in the fermentation chamber. After the enzymatic activation period was completed, the quality of garlic changed obviously.
From the appearance, garlic skin and part of the garlic meat separated, garlic meat turned brown, hardness reduced, become more soft. From the internal quality point of view, the water content of garlic meat decreases and the quality becomes lighter. This is the garlic meat has lost the pungent taste of raw garlic, began to gradually sweeten and sour. The period of 10 to 30 days is the middle temperature fermentation period of black garlic. During this period, the speed of garlic enzymatic reaction slows down gradually, and the requirements for environmental conditions are not so strict. Generally, the temperature is between 50 and 60 degrees Celsius, and the relative humidity is about 85%. Natural ventilation can be used indoors. Thirty days later, although the black garlic has been fermented successfully, it still needs a ripening process. Just like the wine just produced, it needs to be stored for a period of time. At room temperature, let it ferment slowly. During this period, the main task is to do a good job of ventilation in the fermentation chamber, reduce the humidity of the fermentation chamber, and prevent the black garlic from mildewing.
After 90 days of fermentation, the garlic cloves have become dark black. The garlic meat is soft, peel off the garlic skin, pick it lightly with toothpick, and the black garlic meat can be eaten.
Because garlic peel contains very little carbohydrate and very high cellulose content, garlic peel basically does not produce enzymatic reaction during the whole fermentation period, so the color and texture of garlic peel will not change greatly, which is also one of the mysteries of black garlic outside white inside black.
After 90 days of fermentation, bacteria or microorganisms may grow on the epidermis of black garlic. Therefore, after fermentation, ultraviolet disinfection and ozone disinfection are needed to sterilize the epidermis of black garlic. The disinfection time is 48 hours.